The Sultan Hassan Mosque, also known as the Mosque and Madrasa of Sultan Hassan, is a historic mosque located in Cairo, Egypt. It was built during the Mamluk period in the 14th century under the reign of Sultan Hassan bin Al-Nasir Muhammad.
Construction of the mosque began in 1356 and was completed in 1363. It was designed by the architect and builder, Master of the Masons, Al-Maqrizi. Sultan Hassan intended for the mosque to be one of the largest and most spectacular in Cairo, reflective of Mamluk architectural grandeur.
The mosque occupies a vast area of approximately 7,906 square meters. Its architectural style is a blend of medieval Islamic and Mamluk design elements. The mosque’s structure consists of a central courtyard surrounded by four iwans, or vaulted halls, on each side. The massive central dome, reaching a height of approximately 38 meters, is the most prominent feature of the mosque.
The interior of Sultan Hassan Mosque is lavishly decorated with intricate marble carvings, colorful tiles, and Quranic inscriptions. The mihrab, or prayer niche, is particularly notable for its elaborate design, adorned with beautiful geometric patterns and calligraphy.
Sultan Hassan Mosque was not only a place of worship but also served as a center for religious education. It included a madrasa, or Islamic school, which offered courses on various subjects such as Quranic studies, Islamic law, and Arabic grammar. The madrasa’s classrooms are situated around the central courtyard.
Throughout its history, the Sultan Hassan Mosque has undergone several restorations and renovations. It suffered significant damage during a powerful earthquake in 1759, leading to partial collapse and subsequent restoration efforts. Today, the mosque stands as a prime example of Mamluk architecture and is an important historical and architectural landmark in Cairo. It remains in use as a functioning mosque, attracting both locals and tourists alike.