Islamic Egypt refers to the period of Egyptian history that began in 641 AD when Egypt was conquered by the Rashidun Caliphate, marking the end of Byzantine rule in the region. The Islamic conquest significantly impacted Egypt’s political, religious, social, and cultural spheres.
- Rashidun Caliphate (639-641)
- Umayyad Caliphate (661-750)
- Abbasid Caliphate (750-1258)
- Fatimid Caliphate (909-1171)
- Ayyubid Dynasty (1171-1250)
- Mamluk Sultanate (1250-1517)
- Ottoman Egypt (1517-1914)
Under Islamic rule, Egypt became a part of the larger Islamic world and was administered by a series of caliphates and dynasties, including the Umayyad Caliphate, Abbasid Caliphate, Fatimid Caliphate, Ayyubid Dynasty, Mamluk Sultanate, and finally the Ottoman Empire.
During the early Islamic period, Egypt underwent a process of Arabization and Islamization. Arab settlers gradually replaced the Byzantine and Coptic ruling elite as the dominant demographic and linguistic group. Islam became the dominant religion, and the Arabic language became the official language of the state.
The Fatimid Caliphate, which ruled Egypt from 969 to 1171, had a significant impact on the region. It was founded by the Ismaili Shia sect and established its capital in Cairo, which became a center of trade, learning, and culture in the Islamic world. The Fatimid period witnessed a flourishing of art, architecture, and intellectual pursuits. Al-Azhar University, one of the oldest universities in the world, was established in Cairo during this time.
The 13th century saw the rise of the Mamluks, a multiethnic military caste that emerged as the de facto rulers of Egypt. The Mamluks successfully repelled the Crusaders and maintained control over Egypt for several centuries, despite facing external threats from various Mongol invasions.
In 1517, Egypt was incorporated into the Ottoman Empire following the Ottoman conquest of Egypt. The Ottomans ruled Egypt for centuries, with varying degrees of direct and indirect control. During this period, Egypt underwent significant agricultural and economic reforms under the leadership of Muhammad Ali, an Albanian officer who established a dynasty that ruled Egypt from 1805 to 1952.
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Egypt experienced nationalist movements and increased demands for independence from British colonial rule. The Egyptian Revolution of 1952 ultimately led