Ancient Egypt (3100 BC – 30 BC)


Ancient Egypt, located in northeastern Africa along the Nile River, was one of the world’s oldest and most powerful civilizations. It spanned for over 3,000 years, from approximately 3100 BC to 30 BC. The history of ancient Egypt can be divided into several periods:

  1. Early Dynastic Period (3100-2686 BC):
    • The unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh, Narmer.
    • The construction of the first pyramid at Saqqara by Pharaoh Djoser.
  2. Old Kingdom (2686-2181 BC):
    • The construction of the famous pyramids at Giza, including the Great Pyramid of Khufu.
    • The establishment of the centralized government and the development of a unique writing system, hieroglyphics.
    • The decline and eventual collapse of the Old Kingdom due to political instability and droughts.
  3. Middle Kingdom (2055-1650 BC):
    • The reunification of Egypt under Pharaoh Mentuhotep II.
    • The expansion of trade and the development of a more inclusive and benevolent ruling style.
    • The invasion of the Hyksos, a Semitic people from the Levant, led to the decline of the Middle Kingdom.
  4. New Kingdom (1550-1077 BC):
    • The expulsion of the Hyksos and the rise of the New Kingdom under Pharaoh Ahmose I.
    • The reign of powerful pharaohs like Thutmose III and Ramesses II expanded Egypt’s territory to its greatest extent.
    • The decline of the New Kingdom was due to economic troubles, foreign invasions, and internal conflicts.
  5. Late Period (664-332 BC):
    • Foreign invasions by the Nubians, Assyrians, Persians, and Greeks.
    • The conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great and the subsequent Macedonian-Greek rule under the Ptolemaic dynasty.
    • The decline of ancient Egyptian culture and traditions.
Egypt Wikitravel
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